African Journal of Internal Medicine

African Journal of Internal Medicine ISSN 2326-7283 Vol. 7 (10), pp. 001-004, October, 2019. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Carrying angle of an adult Nigerian population

Mbagwu Smart Ikechukwu1* and Aligwekwe Athanasius Ugochukwu2

1Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Accepted 02 April 2019


Apes and humans are distinguished from other primate species in possessing carrying angle at the elbow. No study exists in the literature regarding carrying angle of adult population of Southeastern Nigerians. 509 healthy volunteers from southeastern Nigeria with an average age range: 18-67 years participated in this study. The carrying angle measurements were performed first on the dominant extremity and then on the non-dominant extremity. The carrying angle was measured with a full-circle manual goniometer made of flexible clear plastic with 35 cm long arms. This device fulfilled the requirements of a universal goniometer. It was positioned on the volar surface of the arm and was aligned with the mid-axis of the humerus to the extended elbow and mid-axis of the fully supinated forearm. In the males, the right carrying angle was 16.9°±4.14° and the left carrying angle was 14.2°±3.53° (P<0.05). in the females, right carrying angle was 20.5°±3.82° and left carrying angle was 17.5°±3.87° (P<0.05). Right and left carrying angles of females were found to be higher than carrying angles of males. This study has established data on the carrying angle in Southeastern Nigerian adult population by anthropometric method. According to the study, the carrying angle of the females ranked higher than males and that of the dominant arm was found to be significantly higher than the non-dominant arm in both sexes. Greater carrying angle in female is considered as secondary sex characteristic. This study will assist the orthopedic surgeons and manufacturers preparing for elbow replacement implants.

Key words: Carrying angle, anthropometry, adults, Nigeria.