African Journal of Internal Medicine

African Journal of Internal Medicine ISSN 2326-7283 Vol. 9 (7), pp. 001-009, July, 2021. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

The new glucose revolution: Is the authoritative guide to the glycemic index the right dietary solution for lifelong health?

Haiyan Chen1,2*, M. Janet Shaw2 and J. Laurie Moyer-Mileur1

1Center for Pediatric Nutrition Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

2Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah College of Health, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Accepted 16 April, 2021

Abstract

The persistence of an epidemic of obesity, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum–fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease. Recent researches focus on the debate among professionals regarding the use of the glycemic index (GI) for meal planning. However, evidence from individual trials about benefits and risks of these diets to achieve weight loss and modify cardiovascular risk factors is preliminary. In epidemic studies, there is limited evidence that a low GI diet is beneficial for a reduced risk of developing diabetes or prevalence of insulin resistance, weight loss or satiety, and other cancers. The GI can be used as an adjunct for the fine tuning of postprandial blood glucose responses, particularly in diabetic patients. Other food/meal-planning interventions have been shown to be more effective than the use of the GI.

Key words: Glycemic index, Glycemic load, macronutrients metabolism, obesity, diabete, coronary heart disease.