International Journal of Agroforestry and Silviculture

International Journal of Agroforestry and Silviculture Vol. 1 (8), pp. 086-092, August, 2014. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Factors upsetting agroforestry system in Swat, Pakistan

Adnan Jamilu, Haider Ammar and Danish Munir Gardish

Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Karachi, Risalpur, Pakistan. Email:

Accepted 01 July, 2014


This study has identified factors that affect the adoption of agroforestry practices; these include farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry, socio-economic characters of farmers and constraints for the development of agroforestry. The analysis of data demonstrates that the factors affecting farmers’ adoption of agroforestry practices have been varied depending on the type of factor. Growing of trees was observed as a function of social and economical characteristics of the farming community. On-farm trees were grown for fuel-wood, timber, fodder, income generation, environmental purpose and for controlling erosion. Poor crop-stand, lack of markets, lack of nurseries, damage by animals and humans and lack of incentives were the obvious constraints expressed by the farmers. Bigger size of the family positively influenced tree cultivation. Farmer’s income has supported agroforestry. Education level encouraged trees. Farm trees species were distributed in the order of poplar > persimmon > peach > pear > walnut > apple > acacia > willow > plum. Further studies are suggested for the contribution of agroforestry to the household income, food security and sustainability of agriculture.

Key words: Agroforestry, farmers’ perceptions, constraints, socioeconomic factors, dry area.