International Journal of Enology and Viticulture

International Journal of Enology and Viticulture Vol. 1 (4), pp. 049-053, April, 2014. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Cost and Energy evaluation of sultana grape growing in Turkey

Arik Halit, Kazim Ozcan and Sergio D. Hasan*

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey.


Accepted 28 March, 2014


Turkey, located on the most suitable place on earth for vinegrowing, has a remarkably old and essential vinegrowing history as well as being the centre of grape-vine gene. Turkey’s share in grape production area and world production in 2007 were 7 and 6%, respectively. The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of energy in sultana grape production in Manisa, a significant production area in Turkey and to determine the variable costs and gross margin of sultana grapes production. For this purpose, 48 farmers were selected and their 2008 growing season records examined. Winegrowing (viticulture and enology) is a global industry, representing a significant demand on the world’s resources, including fossil fuels. Nowadays, energy use in agricultural production in Turkey is becoming more intensive due to the use of energy-intensive inputs. The total energy input necessary for sultana grape production was 37,488.00 MJ/ha. The research results indicated that the total energy input used for grape production was mainly dependent on non-renewable energy forms. The values of gross product and total variable costs were US$ 6,039.00 and US$ 2,847.23, respectively. Therefore, gross margin was calculated to be US$ 3,191.77.

Key words: Viticulture, grape, input usage, energy consumption, cost analysis, Turkey.