International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology

International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology ISSN 2326-7291 Vol. 10 (8), pp. 001-006, August, 2021. © International Scholars Journals

Review 

Update to risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma

Nabil Abdel-Hamid

Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Minia University, Egypt. E-mail: nabilmohie@yahoo.com. Tel:+20506913997, +20106426998, +20121830691.

Accepted 19 February, 2021

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) became a prevalent disease in many populations worldwide. It initiates many economic problems in management modalities and leads to increasing mortality rates. Many trials are made all over the world to implement specific early markers for detection and prediction of the disease, hoping to set a more precise strategy for liver cancer prevention. Unfortunately, many economic, cultural and disciplinary levels contribute to confounding preventive strategies. Many risk factors seem to predispose HCC, which either present individually or collectively depending on the environmental situations. Previous articles discussed many risk factors participating in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, although most of them did not handle collectively the current up to date causes. In this article, the pathogenesis and most of risk factors of HCC are briefly discussed. Most of the intermediating steps of HCC pass through molecular and transcriptional events leading eventually to hepatocyte malignant transformation. These steps are mainly triggered by hepatitis B, C or transfusion-transmitted virus, either alone, or with other factors. Diabetes seems to be greatly a leading disease. Schistosomiasis, a blood infestation, mostly disturbs Nile habitants leading also to bladder, renal and hepatic cancers. Alcoholism, food and water pollutants and some other drugs can lead to HCC. Additionally, some hereditary diseases, as hemochromatosis, -1-antitrypsin deficiency and tyrosinaemia are known to develop to HCC, if not discovered.

Key words: HCC, HCV, HBV, TTV, schistosomiasis, alcoholism, NASH, hereditary diseases.