International Journal of Agroforestry and Silviculture Vol. 1 (4), pp. 037-051, April, 2014. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Alteration of tree species in Traditional Agri-silvi-horticulture systems along altitude and aspects of the Garhwal Himalaya, India

Arvind Bijalwan

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Technical Forestry, Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) P.O.-357, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462 003, M.P., India.

E-mail: arvindbijalwan276@gmail.com

Accepted 10 April, 2014

Abstract 

Alternation of tree species in traditional agri-silvi-horticulture (ASH) systems along altitudinal changes (1000 to 1500m, 1500 to 2000m and 2000 to 2500m asl) and aspects (northern and southern) were studied in two districts (Tehri Garhwal and Uttarkashi) of Garhwal Himalaya, India during 2012-13. Analysis of tree vegetation for the structural characterization, diversity of plant communities and composition under agri-silvi-horticulture systems in each study site was studied.  The horticultural trees were found mottled throughout the agricultural fields, while forest trees were mostly seen on the bunds of the farmers’ fields. The highest tree density was recorded in 1000-1500m (northern aspect) while the lowest was recorded in 2000-2500m elevation (northern aspects). The Grewia optiva, Melia azedarach in the lower elevation and Quercus leucotrichophora in the higher elevation recorded dominant species among forest tree species while Malus domestica and Prunus armeniaca noticed dominant species among fruit tree species. In general, the higher number of tree species and individuals were recorded on northern aspect with lower elevation compared to southern aspect with higher elevation. It is concluded that elevation and aspects played a significant role in structure, composition and combination in agri-silvi-horticulture systems.

Key words: Agri-silvi-horticulture, agroforestry, altitude, Northern aspect, Southern aspect, diversity, phyto-sociology.