International Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering ISSN 5675-0715 Vol. 2 (7), pp. 001-013, July, 2015. © International Scholars Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Spectral Characterization of Kolsuz-Ulukisla-Nigde Clays, Central Anatolian Region-Turkey and Petroleum exploration
Burhan Davarcioglu1* and Emin Ciftci2
1Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey.
2Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Accepted 12 March, 2015
Characterization of the Kolsuz clays in the Central Anatolian Region (Ulukisla-Nigde-Turkey) were carried out using the spectroscopic techniques and results were interpreted in terms of petroleum exploration. The DTA-TGA measurements have been carried out for determinations of thermal behaviour of the clay samples. The FTIR spectra of clays known as standard clays such as illite, illite-smectite mixed layer, montmorillonite, Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, kaolinite, chlorite (ripidolite), palygorskite were first taken, and then the spectra of anhydrite, gypsum, illite + quartz + feldspar, quartz + feldspar were taken together with the standard clays. The minerals present in the samples were identified by comparing their FTIR spectra with those of the standard clay minerals and XRD results. Moreover, to see whether any changes occur or not in the structure of the clay samples which have been undergone to thermal processes, the FTIR spectrum of the sample (Kk1) belonging to the lower level has been taken. It has been found that Kolsuz clays have included illite, illite-smectite mixed-layer, Na-montmorillonite, chlorite, palygorskite, calcite, feldspar and quartz that silicate has a T-O-T smectite structure. During the diagenesis and metamorphism, changes in the clay structures due to the temperature increase will reflect degree of diagenesis and metamorphism. Factors including temperature, pressure, depth and burial that are all influential during these changes along with hydrocarbon formation and the primary migration of the hydrocarbons could be explained through the diagenesis of clay minerals and organic maturation. Required temperatures for these changes in the clay structures are in the same range with that required for petroleum formation (60 - 150°C). Results acquired by using the organic maturation could be obtained through the spectral studies of the clay mineral structures.
Key words: Clay minerals, FTIR, petroleum exploration, Central Anatolian, Turkey.