International Journal of Agricultural Sciences ISSN: 2167-0447 Vol. 11 (8), pp. 001-012, August, 2021. © International Scholars Journals

Full Length Research Paper

The compressive strength and planting properties of cemented sand and gravel material compacted by the Hilti vibrating method

Young-Ik Kim1, Kyu-Seok Yeon2 and Yong-Seong Kim2*

1Department of Agricultural and Rural Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

2Department of Regional Infrastructures Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701, Korea.

Accepted 21 February, 2021


This study was performed to evaluate the compressive strength of cemented sand and gravel (CSG) material with the Hilti vibrating compaction method and the effects of variables such as curing age and to investigate the planting properties of these CSG blocks when seeded with herbaceous plants and cool-season grasses. Four types of CSG mix designs and cement contents were evaluated by a compressive strength test, and two types of CSG mix designs were tested as planting blocks. To analyze the growth properties of plants in the CSG blocks, the initial germination ratio and period, visual cover and plant height were measured at 4 to 12 weeks after seeding. The results showed that the compressive strength of the CSG material increased as the cement content and curing age was increased. The initial germination started within 5 to 8 days after seeding regardless of the kind of plant or type of CSG block, and the germination ratios were in the range of 55 to 60%. The visual estimation of the cover of the different kinds of plants appeared over eight points for all blocks at eight weeks after planting.

Key words: Hilti vibrating, cemented sand and gravel, planting, germination, cover view.